Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_HELPER::SetupPaths() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/init.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetCategoryArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 77

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Strict Standards: Non-static method AL_CATEGORY::GetSubCatsArray() should not be called statically in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.category.php on line 496

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.categories.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 269

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 328

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.blog.php on line 153

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.author.php on line 139

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 999

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 1000

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.template.php on line 117

Deprecated: Function ereg_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.template.php on line 243

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 86

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::PageLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 498

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 86

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::PageLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 498

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 86

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::PageLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 498

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 86

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::PageLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 498

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 86

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::PageLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 498

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 86

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::PageLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/PageHeader.php on line 95

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 498

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ArticleOptionsPanel.php on line 60

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ArticleOptionsPanel.php on line 60

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ArticleOptionsPanel.php on line 63

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ArticleOptionsPanel.php on line 63

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ArticleOptionsPanel.php on line 68

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ArticleOptionsPanel.php on line 68

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ArticleOptionsPanel.php on line 81

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/RootArticleCategoriesPanel.php on line 77

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ViewArticlePanel.php on line 715

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::AuthorLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 503

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 467

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::GetRelativeDate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 496

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ShortDate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 264

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::GetCategoryListCVS() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ViewArticlePanel.php on line 75

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::CategoryLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 284

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 586

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::GetRatingBar() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/templates/Slick/Panels/ViewArticlePanel.php on line 76

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::GetGlossaryTerms() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 618

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 701

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 708

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 708

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_MakeArticleURLSafe() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 435

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::_SwapLetters() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 401

Deprecated: Function eregi_replace() is deprecated in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/admin/includes/classes/class.helper.php on line 403

Deprecated: Non-static method AL_HELPER::ArticleLink() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/cheaphos/public_html/endo/includes/classes/class.article.php on line 715

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Densinvaginatus type III: report of a case and 10-year radiographic follow-up
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 »  Home  »  Endodontic Articles 11  »  Densinvaginatus type III: report of a case and 10-year radiographic follow-up
Densinvaginatus type III: report of a case and 10-year radiographic follow-up
Case report.



A 10-year-old boy was referred to Piracicaba Dental School for root-canal treatment of the right mandibular central incisor. Clinical signs of morphological alteration were observed with a pronounced ‘dens invaginatus’ on the lingual surface, but no foramen coecum was visible (Fig. 1). The tooth was caries free and no draining sinus was observed. The colour of the tooth did not differ from the adjacent teeth and the total number of teeth in the anterior region was normal (Fig. 2). The tooth responded normally to pulp sensibility testing using ice.
The radiographic examination consisted of one periapical film, which demonstrated a type III invagination extending all the way from the crown to the apex of the root (pseudocanal), with no apparent communication with the main canal (Fig. 3). Although no opening on the lingual surface of the affected tooth could be seen, it was likely that an opening was present since there was a periapical radiolucency.
Since clinical tests suggested a normal pulp, and because there was an invagination extending to the open root end, conservative root-canal treatment of the invagination was initiated as the first course of treatment. It was assumed that the presence of infection in the invaginated canal and the periapical inflammation had delayed root development. The primary purpose of treatment was to remove the infection and allow apical closure of the root.
The tooth was isolated with a rubber dam and access gained to the pulp chamber. The canal was cleaned and shaped prior to placing a calcium hydroxide temporary dressing which was changed on two occasions. Root-canal treatment of the invagination was performed using K-files until a size 30 instrument reached the apex. A 1% sodium hypochlorite solution was used as the irrigant. Gutta-percha and Grossman’s sealer were used to fill the canal with the lateral condensation technique. The pulp continued to provide positive responses to pulp-sensibility testing, which indicated that the pulp in the main root canal had survived. The final restoration of the tooth was completed using amalgam (Fig. 4) and the tooth was reviewed after 1, 2, 5 and 10 years (Fig. 5).

Figure 1. Lingual view of the lower right central incisor showing pronounced dens invaginatus.

Lingual view of the lower right central incisor showing pronounced dens invaginatus

Figure 2. Occlusal radiograph which shows that all teeth in the lower anterior region are present.

Occlusal radiograph which shows that all teeth in the lower anterior region are present

Figure 3. Periapical radiograph which demonstrates the invagination extending all the way from the crown to the apex of the root. Note the periapical radiolucency.

Periapical radiograph which demonstrates the invagination extending all the way from the crown to the apex of the root

Figure 4. Post-operative periapical radiograph taken immediately after completion of the endodontic treatment of the invagination.

Post-operative periapical radiograph taken immediately after completion of the endodontic treatment of the invagination

Figure 5. Periapical radiographs taken at the 1-, 2-, 5- and 10-year follow-up examination.

Periapical radiographs taken at the 1-, 2-, 5- and 10-year follow-up examination