Figure 1. The Akinosi approach to the inferior alveolar nerve can help overcome problems owing to an ectopic mandibular foramen and collateral supply from other nerves leaving the main branch at a high level (illustration reproduced by kind permission of Oxford University Press).
Figure 2. Intraligamentary and intraosseous anaesthesia deliver anaesthetic into the cancellous space by different routes.
Figure 3. The use of a perforator to gain access to the cancellous space at the initial stage of intraosseous anaesthesia (illustration reproduced by kind permission of Oxford University Press).
Figure 4. Delivery of intrapulpal anaesthesia by inserting the needle into the pulp canal until a tight fit is obtained (illustration reproduced by kind permission of Oxford University Press).
Figure 5. The advent of computerized delivery systems like that illustrated has introduced novel techniques such as the anterior middle superior alveolar nerve block.
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