Table 1. Case reports of unintentional calcium hydroxide overextensions.
Figure 1. Radiograph of the right central incisor with periapical radiolucency. Apical root resorption on both maxillary incisors is probably the result of orthodontic therapy.
Figure 2. Radiograph after placement of an intracanal calcium hydroxide dressing with unintentional periapical overextension.
Figure 3. Radiograph taken after renewal of the calcium hydroxide dressing 1 month after the start of endodontic therapy. An additional amount of calcium hydroxide was unintentionally added.
Figure 4. Radiograph taken after a second replacement of the calcium hydroxide paste, 2 months after the start of endodontic therapy.
Figure 5. Control radiograph of the root canal obturation, 3 months after initial consultation. The extraradicular calcium hydroxide had disappeared.
Figure 6. The 1-year control radiograph. There are still remnants of the calcium hydroxide paste. The size of the apical radiolucency is diminishing.
Figure 7. The 4-year control radiograph showing healing of the apical lesion and the presence of a white radiopaque spot at the place where calcium hydroxide remnants were originally present.
Figure 8. Detail of an intraoral radiograph, showing periradicular radiolucencies on both maxillary central incisors, with a history of untreated dental trauma.
Figure 9. Control radiograph of the calcium hydroxide dressing with unintentional periradicular overextension into the buccal fold through a sinus tract.
Figure 10. Control radiograph of the root canal obturation of tooth 21. As the sinus tract was still present, the calcium hydroxide paste was renewed in tooth 11. Due to postponement of appointments, there was a difference of 10 months between the first session (Fig. 8) and the present root canal fillings.
Figure 11. Control radiograph of another calcium hydroxide replacement 1 month after the previous 10 months appointment. There is still calcium hydroxide present in the periapex.
Figure 12. Control radiograph of the permanent root canal filling of tooth 11 and showing healed periapical lesions of both teeth 11 and 21. There are still remains of the previously overextended calcium hydroxide paste.
Figure 13. The 2-year control radiograph. The periradicular situation remains unchanged.
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